Proper nutrition, or nutritional hygiene, is a guarantee of good human health. It strengthens the body’s resistance to various diseases, increases work capacity, physical endurance, is a source of energy, the necessary maintenance of body temperature, work of muscles, lungs, heart, digestive organs, etc.
We can discuss proper and rational nutrition of a person only if the food he eats contains a certain number of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids, water and other substances necessary for the normal functioning of the human body. Moreover, these substances should not be in some, but in a scientifically justified ratio.
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Food hygiene: fats
Their role in the nutrition of the human body is difficult to overestimate. Fats serve to replenish spent energy, and even participate in complex life processes known as metabolism. They are easily formed in the body from carbohydrates (sugar and starch), and often from proteins, and accumulate under the skin and on internal organs, for example, in the liver and kidneys.
Fats are divided into two groups: vegetable (sunflower oil, soybean, olive, corn oil) and animal (butter, lard, lard) – and almost all of them have the same nutritional value. Burning and breaking down in the human body, they provide twice or even three times more energy than proteins and carbohydrates.
Along with fats, each cell contains fat-like substances, or so-called lipids. Among them, lecithin and cholesterol are especially important.
The average daily consumption of fats for an adult is from 60 to 100 g. and depends on the physical load of the body.
Proteins are complex chemical compounds based on nitrogen, carbohydrates, oxygen, and hydrogen. Phosphorus and sulfur are often included in their composition.
Natural proteins are usually formed by microorganisms from the simplest inorganic substances. Human and animal organisms form them only by converting ready-made proteins that come with food.
In the esophagus, proteins are broken down into simpler components – amino acids, which are absorbed into the blood through the walls of the small intestines. The blood carries them to all cells of the body, where amino acids are available for the synthesis of their proteins.
Human food has at least eight essential amino acids (lysine, valine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, methionine, and phenylalanine), from which animal proteins are formed and renewed. Other amino acids can be produced from the above-mentioned amino acids by the body itself.
The main sources of proteins for the human body are egg whites, liver, kidneys, milk, meat, fish, caviar, yeast, as well as fruits and vegetables. The truth is that there are relatively few proteins in fruits and vegetables, although they are important for humans because they increase the assimilation of proteins of animal origin. The average daily consumption of proteins for an adult is 120 g.
Carbohydrates, like fats, are of great importance for the nutrition of a living organism. These include sugar, starch, cellulose and some other substances.
Carbohydrates are easily formed in green plants, intoxicated of solar energy from carbon dioxide and water. This process is called photosynthesis.
Plant foods, fruits, and berries contain carbohydrates in the form of sucrose (disaccharides), glucose, fructose, and galactose (monosaccharides), and milk in the form of milk sugar (lactose) and starch (polysaccharides).
Starch is widely distributed in plant foods. Cereals, potatoes, rice, bread and other products contain it. This is a complex substance. It does not dissolve in water, and in the human body, intoxicated of digestive juices, it breaks down into glucose molecules, which are absorbed into the blood and enters the tissues of the body.
When carbohydrates come with food in sufficient quantity, they are deposited in the body as animal starch – glycogen.
Sugar, jam, jam, honey, jam, halvah are sources of carbohydrates that are easily absorbed. The average daily consumption of carbohydrates for an adult is from 400 to 500 grams.
Mineral or inorganic substances
Mineral or inorganic substances are natural chemical compounds that have the form of salts and are necessary for the normal functioning of the human body. Salts of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and even iron, fluorine, zinc, molybdenum, manganese, copper, iodine, cobalt, etc. are especially important.
Mineral substances are necessary for the body as components of bones, teeth, and enzymes. Many of them (iron, fluorine, zinc, iodine, manganese, cobalt) are contained in food products of plant and animal origin in minimal quantities and have been called trace elements.
Table salt, from which hydrochloric acid is formed in the human body, is also of great importance. It is part of the gastric juice and plays a significant role in the digestion of food, as well as in protecting the body from bacteria.
Bacteria that arrived together with food and saliva quickly die in acidic gastric juice.
Food hygiene: water
It is a major component of fruits, vegetables, berries, meat, fish, and dairy products. The human body cannot do without it, since all complex metabolic processes take place in the body in the water environment. The average daily rate of water consumption for an adult is from 2 to 2.5 liters. Part of it enters the body with food, and part – in water, tea and other drinks.
The attractiveness of food is determined not only by its nutrition, but also by its smell. For this, aromatic spices are added to dishes: onion, garlic, paprika, parsley, celery, dill, as well as bitter and fragrant pepper, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, etc. organic acids. Fruits and vegetables contain varying amounts of organic acids – malic, citric, tartaric, oxalic, and meat and fish – lactic.
The acidity of plant material, of course, does not exceed 1%. Some types of fruits – apricots, cherries, plums – contain up to 2.5%, and black currant – even up to 3.5% of organic acid, which plays an important role in metabolism and food hygiene in general. In particular, it dissolves unwanted salts deposited in the human body.
These are complex substances of plant origin that have a detrimental effect on microorganisms. They are most abundant in onions, garlic, and horseradish roots. Intensely colored fruits (black currants, black grapes, olives, cherries, blueberries) contain organic dyes (antacids) that accelerate the death of microorganisms. I hope you liked our article about the ingredients in food products, the need to eat properly and in a balanced way, and what food hygiene is. We also bring to your attention other interesting articles on our blog, such as types of mushrooms.
The materials presented in the article are general and have a purely informative purpose. They cannot be used as a reference or for any medical purposes.
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